Todd’s Music Page

I love music.  Here are links to some music things I care about.

The Revolutionary Army of the Infant Jesus (fan page for a band I’m crazy about)

Foundations of Tone (an article about guitar gear, which I need to update…..)

In-Ear Monitor Systems (links to some resources about managing personal monitor mixes)

OVNI Lab (the most exhaustive single resource for detailed technical information and reviews about compressors)

Stinkfoot’s Power Supplies Page (the most exhaustive single resource for detailed technical information and reviews about power supplies designed for music gear)

In-Ear Monitors

Here’s some resources for musicians for how to make the most of your personal monitor mixers when using an in-ear monitor system.

Foundations of Tone

Foundations of Tone

A Primer on Electric Guitar Systems

Whenever guitar players get together to talk about things, everyone brings in their own opinions informed by their musical preferences and their personal experience. Here’s some information, opinions, and ideas about electric guitar tone, informed by my musical preferences (I like Pink Floyd, Smashing Pumpkins, The Cure, U2, and brash, noisy, experimental rock) and experience (most of my live playing has been praise and worship in a church environment). I hope you find some of the information helpful, although always bear in mind: “Your mileage may vary!”

Basics of tone

The foundation of an electric guitar player’s tone is the instrument, the amp, and the player’s technique. It’s important to never lose sight of these three legs that are the foundation of your tone. Discussion of tone often starts and ends with effect pedals or other tone-shaping tools. But remember: those tools only shape the tone that’s already there. At the fundamental level all you need to sound great is a quality instrument connected by a good cable to a quality amp. Instrument Not all electric guitars are created equal.


Apart from the cosmetic differences in how guitars look, and the ergonomic differences in how the components (switches, knobs, tremolo arm, etc.) are arranged, the components of a guitar also affect the tone. Factors include the body style (especially solid body vs hollow body), type of wood used in the neck and body, the type of finished applied to it, the neck shape and design, the strings used, the type, rating, and quality of the tone and volume controls, and the type and configuration of the nut, frets, and bridge. There are far too many options for each of the factors listed above to go through them all here, and many players like to have more than one guitar type available to take advantage of different instruments’ features. However, there are two aspects of instrument selection and maintenance that bear strongly on shaping tone, so I’ll discuss them here.

The first is the instrument’s “set up.” “Set up” refers to the process of setting the adjustable features of your guitar (such as bridge saddle, neck tension, etc.) to achieve the best possible intonation at all points on the fretboard. Setting up a guitar is part science and part art. Because setting up a guitar sometimes requires specialized tools, many players take their guitar to a reputable technician or luthier to get their instrument set up. Note that if you change the gauge of your strings more than one gauge up or down, you will likely want to set up your instrument to accommodate the different string gauge.

The instrument’s second major contribution to your tone is the pickups. Pickups are basically just magnets surrounded by coiled wire. Pickups sense the vibration of the strings, and convert those vibrations into an electrical signal. There are many different types of pickups, but here are the three most common used in electric guitars. “Single coil” pickups have a thin wire wound hundreds of times around six separate pole magnets set into a frame. The six “pole piece” magnets are frequently mounted at varying heights to account for different frequency ranges associated with the different strings. Many people (including me) love the chime and sparkle that defines single coil pickups. But… single coil pickups are more susceptible to picking up electromagnetic interference (resulting in unwanted hum or hiss, known as “60 cycle hum” because the frequency being detected is at 60Hz). “Humbucker” pickups are really a pair of single coil pickups wound in different directions around a single bar-type magnet. This reverse winding tends to cancel out the effect of electromagnetic interference (thus “bucking” the “hum” it can cause.) Humbuckers tend to be “hotter” pickups, meaning they produce a more robust electrical signal, which is easier to distort and provides more sustain. However, humbuckers’ extra punch sometimes comes at a cost in clarity and definition compared to single coils. “P90s” combine some features of single coil and humbucker pickups. They are single coil pickups, but the pole pieces are not themselves magnetic but are set in a single bar magnet, like a humbucker. P90s are, in my view, a uniquely voiced compromise solution between single coils and humbuckers. There are other types but these are the broad categories. And within each category the materials used and the winding pattern (including number of times the wire is wound around the pickup, and the pattern of the winding) combine to create the pickups’ output which can be expressed in electrical measurements, but is for most players a very subjective thing.

Many guitars, especially Stratocaster and Telecaster variants, will combine pickup types. You’ll commonly see H and S used to denote pickup configuration (for example, a “super strat” model Stratocaster is H-S-S, denoting a humbucker in the bridge position, and single coil pickups in the middle and neck position). Many Telecasters now offer a single coil in the bridge positions, with a P90 or a humbucker in the bridge.

Tone tends to be brighter and hotter from pickups near the bridge, and darker and warmer from pickups near the neck. Many vintage guitars have identical pickups in different positions but in modern guitars many pickups are designed to be used in either a bridge, middle, or neck position. Most modern pickups are “passive” meaning they produce signal based only on the potential energy contained in their magnets. However, some modern pickups are “active,” and require battery power to function. Active pickups are less susceptible to electromagnetic interference because they use active electric current to amplify the vibration detected by the pickups, and lower the impedance of the resulting signal before it leaves the guitar (more on that later, as the impedance presented to certain effect pedals can impact their tone.)


Amplifiers turn the vibration of a guitar string into a much louder sound. The vibration you create when you pluck a string is detected by a magnet in the pickup; the pickup discharges that vibration as a faint electrical signal through the wires and controls of your guitar and cable into the amp; the amp uses electrical circuitry to magnify (or “amplify”) that signal, and output it to the magnet of a speaker. The varying wavelengths presented to the speaker magnet causes the magnet to pulse. By attaching a speaker cone to the magnet, the speaker cone discharges the magnets pulsing wavelengths as physical vibration. That physical vibration causes the air to vibrate at the same wavelength, and that vibration of the air travels as sound waves through the air until it reaches your eardrum. The vibrating air causes your eardrum to vibrate; that vibration is received by nerves in your body which relay the information to your brain which interprets the information and produces a sensation of awesomeness….

Early amplifiers (like early TV sets, radios, and computers) were powered by vacuum tubes, which were used to magnify the signal received by the amplifier. Later, the development of solid state electrical components like diodes and transistors (“solid” as distinguished from empty “vacuum” tubes) allowed amplifiers – and many other electronic devices – to be produced much more cheaply. Tube amps tend to be more expensive to produce, but many players find the tone of tube amps to be warmer and more satisfying. However, solid state technology is so advanced these days it’s possible to get great tone from tube or solid state amps. Many amps combine tube and solid state technologies. Some amps have the actual amplifier circuit in one enclosure, and the speaker in a separate enclosure (referred to as the “head” and the “cabinet” respectively). Other have the entire amplifier system in a single enclosure (referred to as a “combo” amp.)

Different amp manufacturers tend to produce amps with common characteristics, including signature tones. Vox amps tend to be bright and jangly, evoking a “British invasion” sound. U2’s The Edge is a well-known Vox user. Fender amps tend to have deeply resonant clean tones with well-defined bass and treble response, with less emphasis on middle frequencies, and mild breakup when they begin to distort. Many American blues rockers rely on Fender amps. Marshall amps have great low-end sounds, and tend to break up quickly making them popular with hard rockers from Jimi Hendrix to the Smashing Pumpkins. All these companies offer tube or solid state amps, and there are tons of other great amp manufacturers.

When you push any speaker past a certain threshold it will be unable to perfectly reproduce the signal, and the sound wave will start to become distorted. Many early guitar players liked this distorted sound, and thus pushed their amps hard – and loud – on purpose to get that sound. At some point, people started to experiment with other ways to distort, modify, and otherwise alter the electrical signal between your guitar’s strings and the amplifier’s speaker cone. Let’s talk about these “effects….”


After the first effect – distortion – was discovered by accident, players started experimenting with other ways to shake things up. The earliest effect developed deliberately was tremolo, which is nothing more than the rise and fall of the amp’s volume at a specified speed and depth. Later on, manufacturers attempted to re-create that cool space and echo you get when you play loudly in a big space by using springs to cause the amp’s signal to reverberate, producing “reverb.” Tremolo and reverb became relatively common features on amps, and remain so today. Eventually, manufacturers began developing effects housed in their own enclosures: you see them today as effect pedals, rack-mounted effects, or options included in amplifiers or instruments themselves. Today, it’s common for players to have a few different effects, often secured together on a pedalboard for convenience. Before I talk about individual effects, a few foundational concepts: power, patching, impedance, and effect order.


Most guitar effects require electric power, and it’s important to power your effects correctly. Early effects were powered by batteries and most still can be. More recently, effects included an option to use AC power via an attached or external power cable. Most effects these days have a port for an external power source. It’s important to use the correct power for two reasons: safety and tone.

Power: Safety

Safety first: there are numerous problems (including dangerous electrical shock and the risk of an electrical fire) that can occur if you don’t use the correct power. Here’s how to tell your power source is correct:

  • Voltage type: AC or DC. They don’t mix. Most guitar effects take DC power but some want AC; you must always confirm before applying power. Applying AC power to a DC device will usually damage the device. An AC device will not function on DC power, but is less likely to be damaged if accidentally applied. Some devices are capable of accepting either type of voltage. Look for the power designator on the device and on the power supply, and make sure they match.
  • Voltage level: Expressed in volts. Most effects require 9 volts; some require more and some accept a range of voltage. A few effects (especially fuzz) actually sound nice if they are “undervolted,” and some power sources include a “sag” function that lets you reduce the voltage to get that effect. But most effects won’t work properly if under-volted. If you over-volt an effect you will probably damage it.
  • Polarity: The path of electricity in direct current is described as positive and negative (or ground); electricity flows from the positive to the negative (or ground). (Polarity is immaterial for AC circuits, as the current flow “alternates” between the two poles). The symbol below represents the convention for describing the power supply tip.

  • Be sure you use the right one, or you’ll fry the effect and possibly the power source! Some effects use other form factors for their power sources: be sure you understand the polarity before plugging it in. (In this image, the dot in the center refers to the interior of a barrel-shaped power supply tip; the c-shaped figure in the center refers to the outside surface of the power supply tip.)
  • Current draw: Current draw is expressed in amperage. Some effects draw very low amperage (as low as 3 milliamps); others require several hundred milliamps. The effect will only draw as much current as it needs, so any power source meeting or exceeding an effect’s current requirement is safe. However, if the effect attempts to draw more current than the power source can produce, the effect may malfunction (especially true of digital effects), and the power source may overheat.
  • So for example, here are the power requirements for the EHX SuperEgo, an effect I’ll discuss later: “The Superego’s current requirement is 140mA at 9VDC. The polarity of the power jack is center negative. The maximum allowable power supply voltage is 10.5 VDC.” This tells me everything I need to know about its power requirements: voltage level (between 9 and 10.5 volts), voltage type (Direct Current), power source polarity (center negative tip), delivering at least 140mA of power.

    Power: Tone

    How you power your effects can also affect their tone. Electric current flows to a common ground, and ideally there is only one path to ground. If a system has multiple paths to ground, you run the risk of creating a “ground loop” where the current cycles back on itself instead of flowing to ground. This can happen when effects’ power supplies are “daisy-chained” together from a single power source. This “ground loop” acts as a powerful antenna that receives electromagnetic interference, but cannot discharge it to electrical ground… it circles around and around your signal path in a “loop” and results in hum or other undesirable impacts to your tone.

    The solution is to ensure that each of your power sources is ground-isolated from the others. You can do this by powering your effects with batteries, by using separate individual power sources for them, or by using a multi-port power source with isolated power ports.

    Note that not all multi-port power sources have true isolated ground (meaning each port on the power source has its own, separate transformer). Unhelpfully, many power supplies are marketed as “isolated power” when in fact the differing ports share a common ground, and are NOT ground-isolated. (Generally, these power supply vendors want to leverage the marketing power of “isolated power,” but what is really happening is internal switching to share max available amperage between all available ports… not separation of the electrical ground). If the power cable for a power source terminates in a “wall wart” (large, block-type transformer where the AC plugs are located) that’s a good indication the ports of that power source are not ground-isolated from each other. Most multi-port power sources from Voodoo Labs, Cioks, Walrus Audio, and the Fuel Tank series are properly ground-isolated. These power sources can be a bit pricey, but they’re essential to retaining the good foundation of your tone.

    The worst possible power supply options are “daisy chain” power adapters, which have multiple tips powered by a single power source. These invite ground loop problems. If you do choose to use one of these, be aware that in addition to ground loop issues, one must also be mindful of the combined current draw of all of your pedals. For example, if I use a single 9V DC power source providing 200mA to power a SuperEgo (requiring 140mA at 9v) and a Memory Man (requiring 140mA at 9v), I’m exceeding the capability of the power source by trying to draw 280mA from it. The pedals may malfunction, and the power source may overheat.

    Patching: This refers to how you physically incorporate effects into the signal path between your guitar and your amp. Technically, it includes the instrument cables as well. Your tone is only as strong as its weakest link, and some players who have amazing instruments and top-flight effects cheat themselves by connecting them together with poorly constructed cables. Cables which are poorly shielded tend to pick up electromagnetic interference which creates hiss or hum in your tone. High-quality shielding in a cable doesn’t act as a barrier to electromagnetic interference as such; rather, it functions more like a drain by creating a path of low impedance path to ground that allows the electromagnetic energy to follow a path of least resistance to ground (where you want it). This keeps the electromagnetic interference from reaching the wire carrying your audio signal (located at the center of your cable) and thus out of your signal path. Mogami cables are great pre-fabricated options for shielded instrument cables and patch cables; you can also get kits from George L or Lava to assemble your own instrument and patch cables without needing to solder.
    If you assemble cables yourself, be sure you do it correctly. Some players disfavor solderless cables citing a high failure rate: however, these cables function as reliably as soldered cables if they are assembled correctly. I use George L’s in my rig, so I can explain their use their use the best. Here’s a quick tutorial on using George L’s patch cables.

  • 1) Cut the cable to the desired length. Use an Exacto-type blade for this. Cut with a single pressing motion down through the wire: do not “saw” back and forth, and do not use scissors or wire cutters.
  • 2) Make sure the cable is round (not oval-shaped) and the cut is perfectly perpendicular. Looking at the cable in cross-section, you will see a small bit of copper wire in the center of the cable, a rubber shielding around it, then more copper wire (this is the external shielding) near the edge, surrounded by the exterior covering.
  • 3) Take the jack, and remove the screw-on cap.
  • 4) Push the cable into the jack. You will feel the cable “seat” on a point protruding from the bottom of the cable’s space. Push the cable firmly onto that point: this pushes the center copper of the cable onto the point, which is how your signal travels through the jack.
  • 5) Bend the cable over through the notch provided for that purpose.
  • 6) Start to screw the cap back on; after the cap has seated in the threads, release the cable.
  • 7) Don’t hold the cable down as you screw the cap down; rather, let the action of the cap as it descends the threads push the cable down. This will let the cap cut a notch in the external covering, and make contact with the copper external shielding wire.
  • 8) This process can be done ONCE. If not done successfully, you’ll need to trim the cable down or use a new length of cable.
  • 9) I recommend use of the rubber stress caps on patch cable plugs to prevent plugs from creating undesired ground contact.


Impedance refers to the amount of resistance an audio signal faces as it passes through cables and circuits. Assuming your instrument uses passive pickups, your signal leaves the guitar as a “high impedance” signal, meaning it is easily “impeded” in its path. This matters for your tone because a high impedance signal passing through a long path (either a long cable or a large effects rig) degrades as it transits. The first element of the signal to degrade is the high frequency range of your tone; this makes your tone sound relatively darker or muddier as it passes through more and more cable; the phenomenon is often referred to as “sucking tone.” There are two cures for this: keep your cables and effect chain very short, or introduce “buffers” into your signal path.

Buffers lower the impedance of your guitar’s signal, letting it traverse longer signal paths without losing any sound quality. Buffers can be standalone devices, or more commonly many pedals (such as those offered by Boss) are “buffered” in bypass mode. (Other pedals are “true bypass” meaning when the effect is bypassed, no buffer is applied; rather the signal passes another few inches of signal path contained in the pedal switch and enclosure).

Two considerations when using buffers: some buffers are low-quality and can themselves hurt your tone, and some effects only work properly with an un-buffered high-impedance signal. In particular, fuzz does not generally respond well after a buffer. My preferred method of impedance management is to have a “master buffer” which is always on, ensuring that my signal is always buffered by the same high-quality buffer no matter what effects I have on. High quality master buffers include the Empress Buffer+, and the Radial Tonebone series of switchers.

Effect Order:

The effects you use shape your tone, and the order in which your signal passes through effects matters. Different effects interact differently with each other, and with your guitar/amp pairing, depending on the effect order. Unlike principles of power and grounding, there are no hard and fast rules about effect order. In fact, you can use effect order switching tools to change up effect order while you play, and achieve a more diverse range of tone options. However, a widely used framework for effects is as follows: filter > distortion > modulation > volume > time-based effects (more conventionally, delay followed by reverb). Some effects like boosters and compressors are used in so many varying ways there is no convention for placement. I’ll discuss individual effect types in the order I just listed.

Effects: Filter

Filter effects include phase shifters, wah wah pedals, and envelope filters. Each of these applies a variable “filter” to the guitar signal, letting different frequencies pass through a constantly changing filter. The basic idea of all filter effects is the same, and at the right settings can produce similar sounds. The biggest difference is the method used to shift the filter:

  • Phasers use a low-frequency oscillator to shift the signal at a specified rate and depth.
  • Wah wah pedals use the mechanical action of the treadle to shift the filter.
  • Envelope filters shift the filter range based on the dynamics of your playing.
  • These aren’t the only methods: Source Audio has a “hot hand” controller that shifts phase with the motion of your hand, and filters that accept an expression control can be controlled with programmable sequencers.
  • Filters are usually first in the chain, although (especially for phasers) it’s worth experimenting. In almost all cases, filters act very differently before distortion versus after distortion.

    Effects: Distortion

    Distortion is the easiest effect to understand, but actually exists in a wide range of tones. All distortion works by “clipping” the audio signal, i.e. forcing it to exceed a threshold somewhere in your chain. You can do this by driving your amp beyond certain parameters, or you can do it at lower volumes through a distortion pedal, which pushes the signal through electrical components designed to clip the audio signal. There is no formal taxonomy of distortion sounds, and some distortion effects could be classified different ways. Sometimes the term “gain” is used interchangeably with “distortion” and through they aren’t technically equivalent concepts, when used in a guitar overdrive or distortion effect “more gain” means “more distortion.” However, here is a generally accepted list of distortion types:


    Designed to achieve the sound of an amp pushed to the point where the sound naturally breaks up and distorts. Because natural amp breakup often only occurs at very high volume, overdrive effects can achieve this sound at a more manageable volume level. Overdrive is used in all types of music. Popular families of overdrive include the Tube Screamer, Blues Driver, Blues Breaker, and KLON variants… multiple versions of each circuit abound. Overdrive families are generally distinguished by their range of gain or distortion (high, medium, or low), and by their tone characteristics (flat EQ, mid-boost, or mid-scoop). There are too many overdrive builders to hope to list here, but outstanding overdrives can be found from big name companies and boutique builders.


    Designed to clip at a much harsher level. You can get distortion sounds from an amp pushed very hard, and like overdrive distortion pedals mimic that sound. Popular variants include the MXR Distortion +, Boss DS-1, and ZVEX Box of Rock. But there are thousands of others… Outstanding distortion tones can be found from big name companies and boutique builders.


    Fuzz was one of the first guitar effects to be produced for commercial use. Fuzz is a harsh destruction of the guitar’s signal and can be an unruly effect. In the 60s you heard it in Jimi Hendrix and Iron Butterfly; today it pervades alternative rock. Personally, it’s my favorite tone shaping tool but it’s not for everyone. Some great fuzz builders today include Analogman, Monsterpiece, and Devi Ever.

    Big Muff and Rat:

    Two types of distortion deserve special mention because they are so prevalent, and because they span distortion types. The ProCo Rat is a dirty, flexible distortion pedal that can get into fuzz territory but can also be dialed down to serve as an overdrive. The Big Muff from Electro-Harmonix has existed in several circuit configurations, and has been cloned by multiple builders. It can produce tones that range from smooth violin-like lead lines to raspy, spitty fuzz. Well-known users include Pink Floyd/The Wall (early 70’s “Rams Head” circuit Big Muff), Smashing Pumpkins (late 70’s “Op Amp” circuit Big Muff), Pink Floyd/Division Bell (90’s “Russian” circuit Big Muff), and Jack White (2000s-present “NYC re-issue” circuit Big Muff). Lots of builders offer Big Muff clones and derivatives, and none are finer than those offered by Matt Pasquarela at Stomp Under Foot.

    Effects: Modulation

    Modulation effects change a guitar’s sound by bending, shifting, or multiplying it. Here are some common modulation types:

  • Chorus: Chorus copies your guitar’s sound and outputs two sounds blended together: one sound is the original dry signal; the other sound has the pitch slightly shifting. Most chorus effects let you control the rate and depth of the shift; others include additional controls. Chorus at very high rate levels produces a “warble” type effect that can be very useful in small doses. Well-known chorus effects include the Boss CE-5, the Electro-Harmonix Small Clone, and the MXR line of chorus effects. One of the most famous uses of chorus is Kurt Cobain’s use of the Small Clone for the riff to “Come As You Are.”
  • Flanger: Similar to chorus but the offset of the two signals is closer together. With enough range in the controls, you can get chorus and flange sounds from a single effect. Flange sounds are often characterized by a “jet whoosh” effect. I don’t use flanger myself so I won’t opine as to landmark flangers! You can hear a well-know, tasteful use of flanger in the rhythm guitar part to “Pictures of You” by The Cure.
  • Vibrato: Similar to chorus but the dry signal is diminished so the overall effect is of a continuously varying pitch shift. The landmark vibrato effect was the Shin-ui Uni-Vibe, and almost all vibe pedals attempt to emulate the Uni-Vibe. Probably the best known example of vibe use is Jimi Hendrix’s “Machine Gun.”
  • Pitch shift: Pitch effects can get very extreme, but they are self-descriptive. They shift the pitch of the guitar. The pitch shift can be total, or blended with the dry signal (to create a harmony). Well-known pitch effects include the Boss PS-6 Harmonist, the Electro-Harmonix Polyphonic Octave Generator series, and the Digitech Whammy series.
  • Rage Against The Machine’s Tom Morello makes extensive use of the Whammy for his wild, soaring/diving pitch shifting.

Effects: Volume

There are four basic volume effects:

  • First is a volume pedal. This is a straightforward treadle-style effect that shifts your output volume from zero to full. However, note that volume pedals are available with different potentiometer values designed either for high-impedance signals, or for low-impedance signals. A high-impedance volume pedal would come first after your guitar; if your volume pedal follows a buffer you would use a low-impedance volume pedal. At toe-down position (full volume) there’s no noticeable difference, but the sweep of the pedal and the tone quality will suffer at lower volume settings if the impedance range is not correct.
  • Second is tremolo. This effect causes the signal volume to rise and fall. Some effects let you control the rate, depth, and wave form of the shift. This effect is often built into an amp, or it can be a stand-alone effect.
  • The third is a boost. Boost functions by amplifying your guitar’s signal. A boost can be flat (and boost all frequency ranges equally) or can emphasize certain ranges (for guitar, most commonly a treble booster). Some boost effects can work like an overdrive, some are “clean” and only change the volume. Boost can work differently depending on where it is placed in your signal path; and there is no convention for boost placement.
  • The last volume-type effect is a compressor, which I won’t say much about here. Compression is a tough effect to understand and different compressors work in slightly different ways producing varying results by type. The gist of compression is to amplify your signal when its quiet, and limit it when its loud. The effect can be to produce more sustain, to give your attack a sharp, punchy sound, or to add sparkle and body to your tone… the results depend on the type of compressor and your settings. Some effects can work well in different parts of your effect chain, but in general – compression likes to come first. Compression after distortion tends to create a lot of background noise.

Effects: Time

There are two basic time effects: The first is delay or echo, a somewhat self-explanatory effect. Delay and echo effects can be very straightforward, or highly tweakable. One prominent feature in many delay effects is tap tempo, which lets a players “tap” a switch in time with the music to shift the delay time from song to song. This is very useful for live use. The biggest distinction between types of delay/echo effects is whether the effect is analog or digital. Many players feel analog delay is warmer and more “natural” sounding; however digital delay is often much more affordable and with today’s digital technology can sound very similar to analog. Some players prefer the pristine tone and tweakable options of digital delay. Some well-known delay effects include the Electro-Harmonix Memory Man, the Ibanez DE-7, Boss DD-7, and the MXR Carbon Copy. Higher end delays with tap tempo include the Strymon Timeline, Empress Superdelay, and Eventide Timefactor. A new delay pedal by Free The Tone (called Flight Time) actually has a small microphone and sets the delay to correspond to the beat it hears from the drummer. Some of the most famous use of delay effects are heard on U2’s Joshua Tree album.

The second is reverb. Reverb can be understood as mimicking a sound produced in a particular space; thus some reverb types are described as “hall,” “church,” or “room” to replicate those spaces. However, other reverb types can achieve spacy, ambient sounds. There are many outstanding reverb effects available. Reverb is another effect commonly incorporated into amplifiers. Great reverbs include the Electro-Harmonix Holy Grail, the TC Electronic Hall of Fame, the Neunaber Wet series of reverbs, and the Strymon Blue Sky and Big Sky.

Effects: Crazy

Stuff Many other effects which achieve quirky or limited purpose type effects. I’ll mention one by way of example: the Electro-Harmonix Super Ego synth engine. This effect takes a momentary snapshot of your guitar’s signal and sustains it indefinitely. It also has the option to pass the sustained signal through an effects loop that modifies the sustained signal while letting your continued playing pass through unaffected. The practical effect of this is to produce keyboard synth/pad type sounds under which you can continue a lead or rhythm guitar part.

Effects: Multi-Effect Units

In lieu of a pedalboard physically assembling separate effects together, many players opt for a single digital multi-effect unit. These are available from many manufacturers. Budget models are available from Digitech and Zoom; more advanced devices are available from Line 6 and Boss; and high-end professional gear is available from Fractal and other companies. These devices often include many of the tone effects discussed above, with several foot switches to toggle particular effects or banks of effects. Tones are often shaped via menu-based editors, or commonly via computer or tablet interface. In general, the effects in a multi-effect unit shape your tone the same way as separate pedal units. There are pros and cons to using a multi-effect unit vice separate pedals. Maybe I’ll write more about that another time.

Putting it all together: Here are some “rig rundowns” of players’ electric guitar rigs, offered by way of example to synthesize all these concepts.

Rig Rundown:   (Password required)

Andy Prickett Rig Rundown: (Andy plays guitar for several of my favorite bands, including CUSH, The Black Lantern, The Prayer Chain, The Violet Burning, and One Republic). (Update:  Looks like Andy took his rig down… and I’m pretty sure he’s changed it in recent years).

Jeffrey Kunde rig rundown: (Jeff plays guitar for Jesus Culture and a bunch of other P&W artists).

Revolutionary Army of the Infant Jesus


The Revolutionary Army of the Infant Jesus is one of the most interesting and unusual musical experiences I’ve ever encountered. A mix of Christian, mystic, European, and experimental sound – they really defy the “genre” category in your iTunes collection. For many years, they were also intentionally and notoriously anonymous…  more recently, they’ve come out of the shadows a bit.   Google “Revolutionary Army of the Infant Jesus” and you’ll find a handful of references to the band; most provide a discography without much elaboration. A few discuss the apparently deliberate anonymity the band seemed to relish for many years.

If you are not familiar with the bands music, several of their releases are up on Bandcamp at this link:

The band, based in Liverpool UK, derived its name from a fictional terrorist group featured in the 1977 movie “That Obscure Object of Desire“.


RAIJ have never had an official website, to my knowledge.  For a long time, the closest thing to that was a MySpace page, still online as of 2017 but never very active.

(The inscription on the photo (“Let All Mortal Flesh Keep Silent”) is from the liner notes of their 1995 release, Paradis.)

More recently (shortly before the 2013 re-issue of the bands works in the After the End box set) the band came out of the shadows a bit.  They are occasionally active on Facebook ( and have performed live occasionally.


The band’s discography is available from at this link:,+The

Their works include (title / year / label & format)

The Gift Of Tears / 1987 / Probe Plus (LP)

(Band for this recording:  Jon Egan, David Seddon, Paul Boyce, Sue Boyce, and Les Hampson)

Mirror / 1991 / Probe Plus (LP / CD)

Re-released on Occultation Records (LP / CD) in 2017.

Band for this recording:  Paul Boyce (voice, clarinet, keyboard), Jon Egan (voice, guitar, melodica, keyboard, violin), Les Hampson (percussion, guitar, voice, keyboard), with David Seddon (tenor sax, piano, keyboard), Sue Boyce (voice, flute), Angela Mounsey (voice, accordion, flute), Bronek Kram (guitar, bass), Bill Dawson (alto sax), Britta Freimuth (voice), David Rose (organ), Ronan Egan (keyboard)

Original Probe Plus release:

Occultation reissue:

The Gift Of Tears & Le Liturgie Pour Le Fin Du Temp / 1993 / Probe Plus (CD Re-release of Gift of Tears with a 2-song EP added)


The Gift Of Tears / Mirror / La Liturgie Pour La Fin Du Temps / 1994 / Apocalyptic Vision / (2 CD re-issue of all the bands works to date)

Paradis / 1995 / Apocalyptic Vision / (CD, 4-song EP)

The group also has one track on a compilation:
“I Walk Life’s Road,” on Intone Unreleased Projects 1995/1997, Vol. 2 / 1997 / Intone

After The End / 2013 / Infrastition  (3-disc set of prior works)

Beauty Will Save The World / 2015 / Occultation Records

Band for this recording:  Paul Boyce (voice, clarinet, keyboard), Jon Egan (voice, guitar, melodica, harmonium, organ), Les Hampson (percussion, piano, concertina, harmonica, guitar), with David Seddon (tenor sax), Eliza Carew (cello), Jess Main (voice), Hannah Harper (piano, keyboard), Zander Mavor (bass, guitar), Andy D. Foxxe (keyboards), Eilis Egan (voice)

Songs of Yearning / 2020 / Occultation Records

Band for this recording:  John Egan, Paul Boyce, Leslie Hampton, Jessie Main, Eliza Carew, Zander Mavor, Hannah Harper


For a long time, the only meaningful interview with the band was one done by Cross Rhythms (a UK music website) in 1992. It is online at in its entirety; for many years every other article about the band I have found in fact quotes from this single interview. (The article is re-published, by permission, in its entirety at the bottom of this page).

Other connections:

— The original name of the 1995 release was ‘Paradise’, but an error happened in the croppping of the artwork. (Source: This tidbit is interesting because the attributed source for the information is Samuel Durling, one of the members of the Swedish industrial group Mental Destruction. I would not have predicted or anticipated a connection between the two groups, but there may be one.


The Revolutionary Army Of The Infant Jesus: Audio visual revolutionaries

Published in the Cross Rhythms Magazine #10
Saturday 1st February 1992
Re-published here with the kind permission of Cross Rhythms.

Peter Small spoke to the band who shroud themselves in anonymity, THE REVOLUTIONARY ARMY OF THE INFANT JESUS

The scene is set. Sheets hang down obscuring much of the stage. Behind, rows of candles glow and at each side a stack of television sets show a slow-moving hypnotic succession of images. Yep, it’s another Revolutionary Army Of The Infant Jesus gig, probably different to anything else you’ve ever experienced, including, for that matter, previous RAIJ gigs. They first appeared back in ’87 with an astonishing album ‘The Gift Of Tears’, released on Liverpool indie label Probe Plus, mainly known for Peel faves Half Man Half Biscuit. Tracks were played on nighttime radio 1 and Melody Maker described it as “haunting, attractive, harrowing and irritating “. Clearly this ain’t what they call rock’n’ roll. The blatant use of biblical and liturgical words, music and images without apparent irony as well as appearances at Christian festivals suggest that Liverpool is once again home to some mighty interesting happenings. I talked to Jon Egan, Bronek Kram and Les Hampson on the eve of their new release ‘Mirror’.

The Revolutionary Army Of The Infant Jesus are unique. As far as I can see the only real precedent for them is Andy Warhol-period Velvet Underground, the parallels being their audio-visual all-out assault shows, and the songs, a mixture of fragile beauty and relentless rhythm. But if you think they’re just another band out to retread the 60s or anything else for that matter, forget it. Not only have their albums missed the baggy/acid boom by a year on each side, they immediately strike me as about as susceptible to the vagaries of fashion as your grandma; far more interested in exploring Russian Orthodox theology of art as sacrament than pumping up anybody’s jam. Attempts to categorise typically result in unending lists like ‘avant-garde-celtic- gypsy-industrial-disco-etc’. They use synthesisers, Gregorian-type chants, voice and sound samples as well as acoustic guitar, flute, sax, melodica and lots of percussion. The effect is less House, more Gothic Cathedral but they do share one thing with Michael Jackson which is that it’s been four years since the last album. Why so long?

“Various problems and mishaps,” says Bronek. Jon continues, “It took about three years from start to finish.” This wasn’t helped by having to go through six different engineers: one tragically dying suddenly, an¬other seasoned professional giving up in exasperation at their unorthodox recording methods. So which takes the time, writing or recording? “Finding dates when members can actually attend recording sessions,” says Jon. Bronek agrees. “It shouldn’t have taken as long as it did. We find the recording process happens very quickly. It’s what happens after that which takes the time.”

RAIJ albums are multi- layered affairs, the actual music being only a starting point. There’s always something going on off-camera, a noise, an echo, a snatch of dialogue. I suggest ‘Mirror’ sounds more extreme, the accessible parts more so, the less accessible parts much less so.

Jon: “There’s only ‘Nativity’ that’s (laughs) unbearably excruciating.” The others qualify this to “rather hard work”. This features the surprise appearance of an electric guitar. A symptom of line-up change since the first album? “Yes,” says Jon, “that was one of the reasons we clasped him (Bronek) to our bosom, his snazzy electric guitar.” Not just the trendy East European name and moustache, then. In fact, Bronek has always been involved with the video side of their performances.

I wonder what kind of person listens to this stuff? “We don’t actually know,” admits Bronek. “We get some strange letters from people.” The first run of ‘Mirror’ CDs was sold out before release, a fact which amazes them. “We should’ve put a questionnaire in with it,” remarks Bronek. “Like, ‘who are you?'”

With so many strands to their live and studio work I ask where they see themselves primarily coming from – folk, Catholic/Russian Orthodox liturgical music, performance art, rock gospel? “What originally fascinates us about doing an album was making something tangible out of a selection of interests and waiting to see which pigeonhole we ended up in,” says Jon. “As it happened, I don’t think we did. There were various definitions but none of them really encompassed what we did. But that’s because we don’t aim to. The finished album is just a by-product, it’s not the end to which the work proceeds.”

So what is the end? Bronek: “It’s the stuff itself. One reason why it took four years to do is that we didn’t set out to ‘do the second album’, we had ideas we wanted to explore.”

But what tradition do they see themselves in; after all liturgical art has one function and performance art another. “What’s the difference?” says Jon. “One’s sacred and one’s secular. We’re engaged in blurring or breaking down that sort of categorisation.” Could this be one of their objectives, artistically? “No,” says Jon, “it’s that we find ourselves in the process of doing it rather than it being what we set out to do.” Bronek takes up the theme. “None of us could really say why and what it is we do. But that doesn’t mean to say there’s no reason for doing it. But we just don’t know what that reason is.” Les goes on. “Part of the problem is one of basic perception, whether you see there being a series of categories, and when something fits into it, then you know how to perceive it; but if something doesn’t fit into any of the existing categories then you don’t know how to talk about it and it means that you can’t even consider it. But ironically, if it does fit into a category then you don’t consider it anyway because the category itself is the analysis. You have to start looking again at your language of criticism and your language of analysis, maybe, if something is not what you’re used to. I’m not saying that’s what we set out to do, though.”

There are a lot of big words here, often a smokescreen for pretentious drivellers to hide their lack of substance behind. But don’t confuse The Revolutionary Army Of The Infant Jesus with the art-pseud weird out “if you don’t understand, it must be deep, maan” crowd. Perhaps the key difference is that the band’s first step is always a creative, artistic one rather than an intellectual one, but the music speaks for itself.

Not belonging to any tradition, without the rules and guidelines, it must be hard to know when you’ve got it right. “We have rules but they’re based on our intuition, “says Les. “But there are also areas of expertise within the group – Bronek’s with film, the impact of successive images, Les’s theatrical sources for choreography and theatrical stuff, and we look to liturgical sources to induce the right kind of sensitivity in the audience.” Jon remarks that people have in the past accused them of sounding childish and twee but it would be wrong to infer that this is due to a naive approach. A lengthy process of refinement has taken place, “having made mistakes, produced tons of rubbish”, through which they have developed “some expertise at creating conditions which produce the right atmosphere for the response we look for,” as Jon puts it.

It’s true their live performances have in the past been erratic, at worst an inaccessible cacophony accompanied by intriguing visuals; but at best they split the audience into those who quickly leave, uncomprehending and those who stay entranced, caught up in a unique total experience. The albums are a safer bet. While not exactly easy-listening they’re a strangely addictive blend of childlike innocence, mystery and threat, though not in the ‘slicing up eyeballs ho ho ho’ Pixies sense, more that of being in the presence of something vast and other, the Holy Spirit, if you like.

Would they describe what they do as Christian Art? They seem equally reluctant to put themselves in this pigeonhole. “We don’t really know what resonance that label has for people,” says Jon.

“It’s hard,” says Bronek. “We don’t see anyone doing anything like what we’re doing in contemporary music. We draw on sources to create things which are not just collections of other people’s work, we create something new out of the sources we use. The way we put together pieces, the way we create whatever it is we manufacture and present, there’s nobody else who’s doing what we do, as far a s I can see or hear.” It’s a common enough boast, but one probably justified for once. “Enigma?” suggests Jon. “No,” says Bronek, “not at all. There’s the difference, if you don’t hear it, then I don’t know what you’re listening to.”

And yet most of their songs have biblical sources. “What you call Christianity, what is conspicuous, is there because it’s a common language between us,” says Jon. “It’s the only set of images which enables us to express what we want to creatively. The level of commitment to those images varies from member to member but as a group we use them because it’s only the language of the sacred which enables us to express those particular impulses which produce the work. It speaks in a tongue which we’re responsive to.” Les continues, “Artistically it’s very satisfactory, a very productive environment.”

We discuss briefly the use of Christian symbols and names in pop: George Michael, Madonna and Bros adorning themselves with crosses, band names like JesusJones, Enigma and the KLF using Gregorian chants. Jon announces a forthcoming Madonna cover version. Bronek suggests that it’s nothing more than a marketing ploy. Jon’s not so sure. “I don’t know but I suspect it’s to do with the vacuous nature of modern materialistic society, there’s a hunger for something deeper.”

It’s hard to define why one of their pieces should be more profoundly moving than, say ‘Go ahead, punk, eat my bible’ Christian rock or indeed, Enigma who make music from similar ingredients; but it is precisely this mysterious dimension which gives their music its depth that they are most interested in capturing.

U2’s The Edge recently said that one of the reasons they continued was the lack within contemporary music of anything with an authentic spiritual dimension. On that score alone the RAIJ could be one of our most important and undervalued groups.

About Peter SmallPeter Small is the journalistic pseudonym of musician Tim Thwaites.